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US History-Chicago Manual of Style: Chicago Manual Style (CMS)

How to Insert a Footnote

Sample History Paper

Helpful Links


Upper School History Department Quick Guide to Chicago Manual of Style

Upper School History Department

Chicago Style Citation Quick Guide


First Page Headings (Double-spaced).  A separate title page is not necessary.

Left side:                                                                              Right side:

Your Name                                                                       Last name, page number

Instructor’s Name

Class Period



Subsequent Pages

On the right side of the page, at the top, type your last name and the page number.


Chicago papers do not use in-text citations like those found in MLA. Instead, sources are cited in numbered footnotes at the bottom of that page. Footnotes follow any information that is considered uncommon knowledge whether directly quoted, summarized or paraphrased.  Any direct quotation must also have a corresponding footnote.


Notes and Bibliography (also known as the Chicago NB format)

Footnotes go at the bottom of the page on which the source is referenced.

Use a superscript number in the text of the paper, at the end of the sentence in which the source is referenced, after the punctuation. Footnoted sources must also be listed in a separate bibliography.See example below for footnotes for a book source and a website.



The bibliography must include every source you cited within your footnotes AND any other sources you consulted during your research. The bibliography is its own page and it goes at the end of the paper.   Bibliography entries are to be in alphabetical order.

 “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Yale University. accessed May 1, 2017,

Smith, Zadie. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press, 2016.

Footnote (These are the shortened version and can be used when the full citation is on your Bibliography).

  1. Smith, Swing Time, 320.
  1. “Yale Facts.”



Below are two websites that you may want to consult for source-specific footnote and bibliography entry formats.


Chicago Manual of Style:

Purdue Owl: